China’s legislature has passed a wide-ranging and controversial national security law which tightens government control over many areas.
The law broadly defines national security as everything from finance and cyber security to religion.
State media said it would “protect people’s fundamental interests”.
It is part of a raft of policies by President Xi Jinping that have drawn criticism from foreign governments, businesses and rights groups.
The vaguely worded legislation authorises the government to take “all necessary” steps to protect China’s sovereignty.
Included in the law, passed by the standing committee of the rubberstamp National People’s Congress, is a move to make key network infrastructure and information systems “secure and controllable”.
Analysts say this will give pause to foreign technology firms operating in China.
A senior party official, Zheng Shuna, said China’s national security situation had “become increasingly severe”, the Xinhua news agency reports.
Speaking at a news briefing in Beijing, she said China had to defend its sovereignty and interests while also maintaining its political and social stability.
President Xi, who is head of the recently formed National Security Commission, has previously said China’s security covers a wide range of areas including culture, politics, military, the economy, technology and the environment.